This paper proposes three measures for a new archaeological study on the Silk Road. First, a systematic understanding is required for the archaeological achievements on the Silk Road made during the Soviet Era before the 1990s. Nowadays, many scholars in East Asia, including South Korea, rely on literature written mainly in English to study and understand the Silk Road. However, the Silk Road’s archaeological excavations were mostly made before the 1990s, that is, they were not well known in South Korea and the West. Therefore, a systematic understanding of those achievements can be the basis of new international research. Bernshtam’s achievements representing the studies until the 1960s are good examples. They have recently led to the joint publication of an art catalog on South Korea and Kazakhstan’s gold culture. Second, we should move away from the narrow nationalism advocated by nowindependent countries and pursue the research at the international level. The real value of the Silk Road should lie in finding common ground beyond borders and ideology. Thus, it is necessary to understand the research trends in individual countries, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Russia. The Asian Archaeology conference held annually by the National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage of South Korea is one of excellent examples of such an effort. Finally, archaeological research on the Silk Road should move forward not just as an academic pursuit but also as a means of global cultural cooperation. In this regard, active collaboration with international organizations, such as UNESCO, is crucial. As such, if these three aspects are considered together, the international archaeological research on the Silk Road led by South Korea in the new phase of the 21st
century will contribute to the Silk Road research in the new era.