The monograph by N. L. Morgunova, devoted to the problems of cultural genesis, chronology and ethno-cultural interpretation of the Eneolithic communities of the steppe and forest-steppe zones of the Volga-Ural region, is highly praised in the review. The monograph is based on broad generalizations of archaeological materials, using data obtained by natural science methods, including radiocarbon chronology. In the author’s opinion, the Chalcolithic as an era should be regarded as the period of formation of new socio-economic relations, not necessarily associated with the spread of the first metal. The structure of the monograph is arranged in chronological order. The problems of genetic connection of the Eneolithic cultures of the region with both the preceding Neolithic cultures and the subsequent Pit-Grave culture are discussed. Certain statements offered are debatable, but the general research trend presented in this monograph is undoubtedly promising.