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Поволжская археология

Hoard of Artifacts of the Beginning of 13th Century from Zolotorevka Fortified Settlement and Mongol Invasion

Belorybkin G.N., Osipova T.V., Sobol A.S. (Penza, Russian Federation)

page 99–109

UDC 711.524 (470.40)


(735.1 Kb)
The paper features an analysis of items from a hoard discovered inside the remains of a building in a medieval fortified settlement near Zolotarevka village on the Upper Sura. The hoard consists of beads, silver adornments, iron objects and fabric used as wrapping material. A slate spindle was discovered together with beads of various materials. The silver adornments are represented by temple pendants and torcs – woven and tangled. In addition, the hoard included an iron ring and saber dated the 12th – early 13th centuries. The fabric consists of cross-woven linen threads. The authors concluded that this hoard was also laid prior to the Mongol invasion, and the items were used long before that. Many of the items were imported from the East (semi-precious stone beads), from the West (amber beads), or from the central areas of Volga Bolgaria (silver bracelets and a torc). A special place in the hoard belongs to a tangled torc of the Cuman type and ornamented beads. At the same time, there are a jewelry of local origin and a saber with a guard which was characteristic of Zolotarevka fortified settlement. The authors are convinced that the size and weight of the saber indicate that it served not a military, but a symbolic purpose. The composition of the hoard reflects the broad trade relations of the settlement population, and highly developed crafts.


archaeologyUpper SuraMongol invasionbattle of 1237trade relationscraft industryhoard

About the author(s)

Belorybkin Gennadiy N. Doctor of Historical Sciences. Professor. Penza State University, Krasnaya St. 40, Penza, 440026, Russian Federation;

Osipova Tatiana V. Candidate of Historical Sciences.Penza State University, Krasnaya St. 40, Penza, 440026, Russian Federation;

Sobol Ariel S. Penza State University, Krasnaya St. 40, Penza, 440026, Russian Federation;