A number of issues concerning the origin and chronology of the Neolithic Pit-Сomb Ware culture monuments, as well as their correlation with those referring to other cultures are tackled in the article. The spread of pit-combed pottery bearers as a result of their eastward migration from the territory of the Volga-Oka river interfluve seems most likely. Still, the problem of correspondence between radiocarbon dating and stratigraphy data from the Neolithic sites located in the Volga region has not lost actuality. The results of radiocarbon dating show that in the middle reaches of the Sura river pit-comb ware cultures had preceded the combed pottery sites, which requires a revision of the issues of their synchronization based on typological data. In the forest-steppe zone, the sequence of ceramic traditions development could probably differ from that prevalent in the territories located further north.