The long-term archaeological studies of the central part of the Golden Horde Bolgar have resulted in the discovery and study of a unique structure for Eastern Europe – the building of a town bazaar of the mid-14th
century. The article considers the stages of development of the town district where the structure was erected. The study area featured the first underground iron-smelting catalan hearth studied in territory of Bolgar fortified settlement, which are similar to the “Saltovo type” of hearths in term of their design features and dated 10th
century. At the end of the pre-Mongol period and during the Golden Horde period, iron production complexes were replaced with manors accommodating production facilities associated with the smelting and processing of non-ferrous metals, primarily copper. Craft industries of the region reached their highest level of development in the first half of the 14th
century. This period is associated with the operation of copper-smelting, glass-working, jewellery and bone carving workshops. An iron processing district was located in the immediate vicinity of the region. Thus, the emergence of a town bazaar in the study area is in no small part related to the maximum concentration of craft industries in this area of medieval Bolgar.