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Поволжская археология

Analysis of Chemical Composition of Non-Ferrous Metal Items from the Ananyino Burial Ground

Analysis of Chemical Composition of Non-Ferrous Metal Items from the Ananyino Burial Ground


page 26–40

UDC 903.05/052, 054

DOI: https://doi.org/10.24852/pa2016.1.15.26.40


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The article presents results of an analysis conducted by the authors in order to study chemical composition of items from non-ferrous metals found on the Ananyino burial ground. A number of research methods, including OES, XRF and TXRF was applied to study a selection of 387 samples of arrow- and spearheads, celts, tail-pieces, warhammers, poleaxes, knives and daggers, as well as items of attire and jewelry, some sporadic details of harness and bridle. The fi ndings are quite comparable. The results were classifi ed by the geochemical principle of 1,0% alloyage threshold. It was found out that the sample primarily consists of copper items, including “pure” copper and copper with a wide range of trace elements (particularly, Ni, As, Sb). The core (48%) consists of copper items with traces of antimony and arsenic, or “pure” copper (7%), tin or triple bronze (40%); it also includes some other types of alloys based on copper or silver (5%). As the analysis has shown, complex ores seem to be the most probable source of copper. Traditionally, the Urals, the Sayan and the Altay Mountains, Kazakhstan and the Northern Caucasus were regarded as the most probable minefi elds to supply ores to the barren regions of Eastern Europe. While ore sources for products made of metallurgical “pure” copper are localized within the Ural mining and metallurgical region, metal sources for items cast from different groups of alloys (rather than imports of ready-made products) require further research.

Keywords

archaeologyforest belt of Eastern EuropeEarly Iron AgeAnanyino groundnon-ferrous metalscopperbronzesanalysis of chemical composition

About the author(s)

Saprykina Irina А. Candidate of Historical Sciences. Institute of Archaeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Dmitry Ulyanov St., 19, Moscow, 117036, Russian Federation; dolmen200@mail.ru

Kuz’minykh Sergei V. Candidate of Historical Sciences. Institute of Archaeology of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Dmitry Ulyanov St., 19, Moscow, 117036, Russian Federation; Kuzminykhsv@yandex.ru

Pelgunova Lubov А. A. N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution. Leninsky Pr., 33, Moscow, 119071, Russian Federation; lubo4ka007@bk.ru