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On fortification of ancient settlements of the western Volga region
The authors examine specific features of defense lines in the pre-Mongol medieval forts from the Western Volga region (10th
– early 13th
centuries). Such fortified settlements are located in the valley of the Sura river, predominantly. The archaeological studies revealed some specific features of fortification on these sites. However, all of them fit into the general concept of fortifications in the Volga Bulgaria. Most of the forts in this region are located on capes, and thus are compact. Still, they have a complex system of fortifications consisting of one or several (up to three) lines of ramparts with wooden walls and moats. Some of them are arranged as one belt, others consist of separate protective boundaries and divide settlements into internal and external town. Walls had different constructive features and varied between vertical palisades (row of stakes) to wooden cages. Suburbs could be protected by a simple wooden wall without any additional earthen fortifications.
archaeologyhistoryWestern Volga regionmedieval fortified settlementsdefense structures
About the author(s)
Ayrat M. Gubaydullin,Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher, Institute of Archaeology named after A. Kh. Khalikov, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan (Kazan, Russian Federation); firstname.lastname@example.org
Address: Butlerov St., 30, Kazan, 420012, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation
Azgar Mukhamadiev,Corresponding Member of the Tatarstan Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Assistant Professor, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University (г. Казань, РФ);
Address: Kremlyovskaya St., 18, Kazan, 420000, Republic of Tatarstan, Russian Federation